CURRENT PYRAMIDAL LIST OF
FAMILY-GROUP NAMES
WITH INCLUDED GENERA

 

This list of all Killifish family-group names and their included generic names is the most accurate available list, according to current research.

Synthesis

Killifish, the common name for oviparous cyprinodontiformes fishes, are currently classified into 10 families (Huber, 2005 : full details HERE, constantly updated):
- Aplocheilidae, only from India and Madagascar;
- Nothobranchiidae from Africa but Madagascar with 2 subfamilies: Nothobranchiinae and Epiplatinae;
- Rivulidae from Central and South America with 3 subfamilies: Rivulinae, Cynolebiatinae and Kryptolebiatinae;
- Fundulidae;
- Profundulidae, monotypic (which may be included also in Fundulidae as a subfamily or in Goodeidae as a subfamily, depending on authors);
- Goodeidae, with 2 subfamilies: Empetrichthyinae, oviparous and Goodeinae, viviparous;
- Valenciidae, also monotypic (which may be included also in Fundulidae as a subfamily, depending on authors);
- Cyprinodontidae, with 2 subfamilies: Cubanichthyinae (with 2 tribes, Cubanichthyini, Yssolebiini) and Cyprinodontinae (with 3 tribes, Aphaniini, Cyprinodontini and Orestiadini);
- Anablepsidae, with 3 subfamilies: Anablepsinae, viviparous, the monotypic Oxyzygonectinae, oviparous, and Jenynsiinae, viviparous;
- Poeciliidae, with 2 subfamilies: Poeciliinae viviparous (except the monotypic subtribe Tomeurina -or tribe as Tomeurini, depending on authors-, oviparous) and Aplocheilichthyinae oviparous (in 3 tribes, Aplocheilichthyini and Procatopodini in the Old World and the monotypic Fluviphylacini in the New World).
These 10 families are also accepted in international data bases on all fishes to ensure coherence and universality. The contents of lower levels depend more on authors : a consensus view is selected herein.

Detailed list by alphabetical order (except for nomino-typical subunits, listed first, and synonyms, listed by historical order), based on stems (roots) of generic names, following I.C.Z.N. code main rule for family-group names (alternative spellings published by various authors are given after '#' following other rules of the same I.C.Z.N. code)

LAST UPDATE: June 5. 2016

legendBeware, the automatic translator reverses scientific names : please use the English version to save this list.

Main reference : Huber, J.H. 2005. A Review of Family-group names for oviparous Cyprinodontiformes (Pisces; Teleostei). British Killifish Ass. Publ., Separatum, (October): 16 pp., 1 tab. [also duplicated in Huber, J.H. 2006. Killi-Data Catalogue. Killi-Data Editions, Paris, (December 10.): 1028 pp., figs, maps, and freely available herein at Huber's PUBLICATIONS]
That publication is herein enriched with the bibliographic references of the family-group names and is systematically and nomenclaturally updated on a regular basis with the update date mentioned above, for new generic and existing taxa with footnotes for explanations and alternative options.
Notes : according to I.C.Z.N. rules, the biological suprageneric pyramid is normally built based on the Latin or Greek root of the generic name with a suffix added in several levels, [1] the order (suffix -formes) basally [killifish are an artificial assemblage -the oviparous species- of the order Cyprinodontiformes], [2] the sub-order (suffix -oidei), [3] the superfamily (suffix -oidea), [4] the family (suffix -idae), [5] the subfamily (suffix -inae), [6] the tribe (suffix -ini), [7] the subtribe (suffix -ina), and at the bottom-end (before species names), the genus/subgenus levels ; the validity status and ranking of each generic taxon in the following list corresponds to the present evidence in Killi-Data ; footnotes highlight explanations, comments and/or clarification in case of selective choices.

Order Cyprinodontiformes Berg, 1940.
[Berg, L.S. 1940. The classification of fishes, both Recent and fossil. Trudy Zoologicheskogo lnstituta Akademiia nauk SSSR 5: 87-517]

 

Suborder Aplocheiloidei Bleeker, 1859.
[Bleeker, P. 1859. Enumeratio Specierum Piscium hucusque in Archipelage Indico Observatorum, adjectis Habitationibus Cattionibusque, ubi Descritiones earum recentiorus reperientur, nec non Specibus Musei Bleekeriani, bengalensibus, japonicis, capensibus, tasmanicisque. Act. Soc. Sc. Indo-Neerl., 6: i-xxxvi + 1-276.]

 

Family Aplocheilidae Bleeker, 1859.

* Genus Aplocheilus McClelland, 1839.
- Synonym : Odontopsis Hasselt, 1823 (nomen oblitum)
- Synonym : Haplochilus Agassiz, 1846 (emendation)
- Synonym : Panchax Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1846
- Unavailable : Homalopsis Kuhl & Hasselt in Bleeker, 1852

* Genus Pachypanchax Myers, 1933.

 

Family Nothobranchiidae Garman, 1895.
[Garman, S. 1895. The cyprinodonts. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 19 (1): 1-179, 12 plates.]

 

Subfamily Nothobranchiinae Garman, 1895.

 

Tribe Nothobranchiini Garman, 1895.

 

Subtribe Nothobranchiina Garman, 1895.

* Genus Nothobranchius Peters, 1868.

* Subgenus Nothobranchius s.s. Peters, 1868.

* Subgenus Adiniops Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Aphyobranchius Wildekamp, 1977.

* Subgenus Paranothobranchius Seegers, 1985.

* Subgenus Zononothobranchius Radda, 1969.

* Genus Fundulosoma Ahl, 1924.

* Genus Pronothobranchius Radda, 1969.

 

Subtribe Aphyosemina Huber, 2000. (# name based on correct stem is Aphyosemiina) (Footnote 17)
[Huber, J.H. 2000. Killi-Data 2000. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Cybium, Soc. fr. Ichtyologie, Ed., Paris.: 538 pp., figs.]

* Genus Aphyosemion Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Aphyosemion s.s. Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Chromaphyosemion Radda, 1971.

* Subgenus Diapteron Huber & Seegers, 1977.

* Subgenus Episemion Radda & Pürzl, 1987.

* Subgenus Iconisemion Huber, 2013.

* Subgenus Kathetys Huber, 1977.

* Subgenus Mesoaphyosemion Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Raddaella Huber, 1977.

* Subgenus Scheelsemion Huber, 2013.

* Genus Foerschichthys Scheel & Romand, 1981.

* Genus Fundulopanchax Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Fundulopanchax s.s. Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Gularopanchax Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Paludopanchax Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Paraphyosemion Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Pauciradius Wildekamp & Zee, 2005.

 

Tribe Adamansini Huber, 2000. (Footnote 6)
[Huber, J.H. 2000. Killi-Data 2000. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Cybium, Soc. fr. Ichtyologie, Ed., Paris.: 538 pp., figs.]
- Synonym : Fenerbahceini Sonnenberg & Zee, 2008 (Footnote 6)
[Sonnenberg, R. & J.R. Van der Zee, 2008). On the validity of Fenerbahce Özdikmen et al., 2006 as replacement for Adamas Huber, 1979 (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae). Zootaxa, 1687, 67–68]

* Genus Fenerbahce Özdikmen, Polat, Yylmaz & Yazycyodlu, 2006. (Footnote 6)
- Synonym : Adamas Huber, 1979 (preoccupied)
- Synonym : Adamans Huber, 2007

 

Subfamily Epiplatinae Huber, 2000. (# name based on correct stem is Epiplateinae, but preoccupied) (Footnotes 7 and 17)
[Huber, J.H. 2000. Killi-Data 2000. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Cybium, Soc. fr. Ichtyologie, Ed., Paris.: 538 pp., figs.]

 

Tribe Epiplatini Huber, 2000. (Footnote 7)

* Genus Epiplatys Gill, 1862.

* Subgenus Epiplatys s.s. Gill, 1862.

* Subgenus Lycocyprinus Peters, 1868.

* Subgenus Parepiplatys Clausen, 1967.

* Genus Aphyoplatys Clausen, 1967.

* Genus Pseudepiplatys Clausen, 1967.

 

Tribe Callopanchini Huber, 2000. (Footnote 8)
[Huber, J.H. 2000. Killi-Data 2000. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Cybium, Soc. fr. Ichtyologie, Ed., Paris.: 538 pp., figs.]

* Genus Callopanchax Myers, 1933.
- Synonym : Roloffia Clausen, 1966 (invalid)

* Genus Archiaphyosemion Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Archiaphyosemion Radda, 1977.

* Subgenus Nimbapanchax Sonnenberg & Busch, 2009.

* Genus Scriptaphyosemion Radda & Pürzl, 1987.

 

 

Family Rivulidae Myers, 1925. (Footnote 15)
[Myers, G.S. 1925. Results of some recent studies on the American killifishes. The Fish Culturist 4 (8): 370-371.]

 

Subfamily Rivulinae Myers, 1925. (Footnote 15)

 

Tribe Rivulini Myers, 1925. (Footnote 15)

* Genus Rivulus Poey, 1860.

* Subgenus Rivulus s.s. Poey, 1860.

* Subgenus Anablepsoides Huber, 1992.

* Subgenus Atlantirivulus Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Benirivulus Costa, 2006.

* Subgenus Cynodonichthys Meek, 1904.

* Subgenus Laimosemion Huber, 1999.

* Subgenus Melanorivulus Costa, 2006.

* Subgenus Oditichthys Huber, 1999.

* Subgenus Owiyeye Costa, 2006.

* Subgenus Vomerivulus Fowler, 1944.

* Genus Prorivulus Costa, 2004.

 

Tribe Neofundulini Costa, 1990. (Footnote 18)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

 

Subtribe Neofundulina Costa, 1990.

* Genus Neofundulus Myers, 1924.

* Genus Trigonectes Myers, 1925.
- Synonym : Rivulichthys Myers, 1927

 

Subtribe Aphyolebiatina Costa, 1998. (# name based on correct stem is Aphyolebiina) (Footnotes 16 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]

* Genus Aphyolebias Costa, 1998.

 

Subtribe Moemina Costa, 1998. (Footnote 16)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]

* Genus Moema Costa, 1989.

* Genus Micromoema Costa, 1998.

* Genus Renova Thomerson & Taphom, 1995.

 

Subtribe Pterolebiatina Costa, 1990. (# name based on correct stem is Pterolebiina) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

* Genus Pterolebias Garman, 1895.

* Genus Gnatholebias Costa, 1998.

 

Tribe Rachoviini Costa, 1990. (# Rachovini, erratum) (Footnote 18)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

 

Subtribe Rachoviina Costa, 1990. (# Rachovina, erratum)
- Synonym : Terranatina Costa, 1990.
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

* Genus Rachovia Myers, 1927.

* Genus Austrofundulus Myers, 1932.

* Genus Llanolebias Hrbek & Taphorn, 2008.

* Genus Terranatos Taphorn & Thomerson, 1978.

 

Subtribe Millerichthyina Costa, 1998.
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]

* Genus Millerichthys Costa, 1995.

 

Subtribe Plesiolebiatina Costa, 1990. (# name based on correct stem is Pterolebiina) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

* Genus Plesiolebias Costa, 1989.

* Genus Maratecoara Costa, 1995.

* Genus Papiliolebias Costa, 1998.

* Genus Pituna Costa, 1989.

* Genus Stenolebias Costa, 1995.

 

Subfamily Cynolebiatinae Hoedeman, 1961. (# name based on correct stem is Pterolebiina) (Footnote 8 and 17)
[Hoedeman, J.J. 1961. Studies on cyprinodontiform fishes. Preliminary key to the species and subspecies of the genus Rivulus. Bulletin of Aquatic Biology, 2 (18): 65-74, fig.]

 

Tribe Cynolebiatini Hoedeman, 1961. (# name based on correct stem is Cynolebiini) (Footnotes 8 and 17)

 

Subtribe Cynolebiatina Hoedeman, 1961. (# name based on correct stem is Cynolebiina) (Footnotes 8 and 17)

* Genus Cynolebias Steindachner, 1876.

* Subgenus Cynolebias Steindachner, 1876.

* Subgenus Bathylebias Costa, 2008.

* Genus Austrolebias Costa, 1998.

* Subgenus Austrolebias Costa, 1998.

* Subgenus Acantholebias Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Acrolebias Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Argolebias Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Cypholebias Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Gymnolebias Costa, 2008.

* Subgenus Megalebias Costa, 1998.

 

Subtribe Simpsonichthyina Costa, 1998.
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]
- Synonym : Spectrolebiatina Costa, 1998. (# name based on correct stem is Spectrolebiina) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]

* Genus Simpsonichthys Carvalho, 1959.

* Subgenus Simpsonichthys s.s. Carvalho, 1959.

* Subgenus Hypsolebias Costa, 2006.

* Subgenus Ophthalmolebias Costa, 2006.

* Subgenus Spectrolebias Costa & Nielsen, 1997.

* Subgenus Xenurolebias Costa, 2006.

* Genus Nematolebias Costa, 1998.

 

Tribe Cynopoecilini Costa, 1990.
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1990. Classificaçao e Distribuçao da familia Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei). Revta. Brasil Biol., 50 (1): 83-89, figs.]

 

Subtribe Cynopoecilina Costa, 1990.

* Genus Cynopoecilus Regan, 1912.

* Genus Campellolebias Vaz-Ferreira & Sierra, 1974.

 

Subtribe Leptolebiatina Costa, 1998. (# name based on correct stem is Leptolebiina) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1998, Phylogeny and classification of Rivulidae revisited: Origin and evolution of annualism and miniaturization in rivulid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei), J. Comp. Biol., Vol. 3 (1): 33-92.]

* Genus Leptolebias Myers, 1952.

* Genus Mucurilebias Costa, 2014.

* Genus Notholebias Costa, 2008.

 

Subfamily Kryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004. (# name based on correct stem is Kryptolebiinae) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 2004. Kryptolebias, a Substitute Name for Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 and Kryptolebiatinae, a Substitute Name for Cryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 2 (2): 107-108.]
- Nom. preoc. : Cryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004. (# name based on correct stem is Cryptolebiinae) (Footnotes 8 and 17)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 2004. Relationships and Redescription of Fundulus brasiliensis (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), with Description of a new Genus and Notes on the Classification of the Aplocheiloidei. Ichthyol. ExpIor. Freshwaters, 15 (2), 105-120, 10 figs., 3 tabs.]

* Genus Kryptolebias Costa, 2004.
- Synonym : Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 (preoccupied)

 

 

Suborder Cyprinodontoidei Wagner, 1828.
[Wagner, R. 1828. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Gattung Lebias Cuvier und der verwandten Gattungen, nebst Beschreibung zweier neuen in Sardinien entdeckten Arten. Isis (Oken), 21: 1050-1057.]

 

Superfamily Cyprinodontoidea Wagner, 1828.

 

Family Cyprinodontidae Wagner, 1828.

 

Subfamily Cyprinodontinae Wagner, 1828.

 

Tribe Cyprinodontini Wagner, 1828.

* Genus Cyprinodon Lacepède, 1803.
- Synonym : Prinodon Rafinesque, 1815 (emendation)
- Synonym : Lebias Cuvier, 1816 (invalid)
- Synonym : Encrates Gistel, 1848
- Synonym : Trifarcius Poey, 1860

* Genus Cualac Miller, 1956.

* Genus Floridichthys Hubbs, 1926.

* Genus Garmanella Hubbs, 1936.

* Genus Jordanella Goode & Bean, 1879.

* Genus Megupsilon Miller & Walters, 1972.

 

Tribe Aphaniini Hoedeman, 1949.
[Hoedeman, J.J. 1949. Family Cyprinodontidae, In: Hoedeman, J.J. & J.C.M. de Jong, Eds. 1947 - 1958. Encyclopaedie voor den aquariumhouder, De Regenboog, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, looseleaf edition, 56 parts.]
- Nom. oblitum : Telliini Bleeker, 1864. (Footnote 2)
[Bleeker, P. 1864. Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néerlandaises, publié sous les Auspices du Gouvernement Néerlandais III. Cyprins. Frederic Muller, Amsterdam, (1863): 1-150, 43 pls.] - Invalid name : Lebiatina Costa, 1997. (# name based on correct stem is Lebiina) (based on Lebias Goldfuss, 1820, a rejected name following ICZN Opinion 2057)
[Costa, W.J.E.M. 1997. Phylogeny and Classification of the Cyprinodontidae revisited (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes), are Andean and Anatolian killifishes sister taxa? Journal of Comparative Biology, 2 (1), 1-17.]

* Genus Aphanius Nardo, 1827.

* Subgenus Aphanius s.s. Nardo, 1827.
- Synonym : Micromugil Gulia, 1861
- Synonym : Aphaniops Hoedeman, 1951

* Subgenus Anatolichthys Kosswig & Sözer, 1945.
- Synonym : Turkichthys Ermin, 1946

* Subgenus Kosswigichthys Sözer, 1942.

* Subgenus Tellia Gervais, 1853.

 

Tribe Orestiadini Bleeker, 1859. (#Orestiasini #Orestiini #Orestiatini) (Footnote 12)
[Bleeker, P. 1859. Enumeratio Specierum Piscium hucusque in Archipelage Indico Observatorum, adjectis Habitationibus Cattionibusque, ubi Descritiones earum recentiorus reperientur, nec non Specibus Musei Bleekeriani, bengalensibus, japonicis, capensibus, tasmanicisque. Act. Soc. Sc. Indo-Neerl., 6: i-xxxvi + 1-276.]

* Genus Orestias Valenciennes, 1839.
- Unavailable : Protorestias Eigenmann & Allen, 1942

 

Subfamily Cubanichthyinae Parenti, 1981.
[Parenti, L.R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 168 (4): 335-557, 99 figs., 3 tabs, maps.]

Tribe Cubanichthyini Parenti, 1981

* Genus Cubanichthys Hubbs, 1926.

* Genus Chriopeoides Fowler, 1939. (Footnote 5)

Tribe Yssolebiini Huber, 2015

* Genus Yssolebias Huber, 2012. (Footnote 14)

 

Superfamily Funduloidea Günther, 1866. (Footnote 1)
[Günther, A. 1866. Catalog of Fishes in the British Museum. British Museum, London, 6: 368 pp.]

 

Family Fundulidae Günther, 1866.
- Nom. oblitum : Hydrargiridae Gill, 1861 (Footnote 2)
[Gill, T. 1861. Catalog of the Fishes of the eastern Coast of North America from Greenland to Georgia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 13 (1860) (supplement): 1-63.]

* Genus Fundulus Lacepède, 1803. (Footnote 9)

* Subgenus Fundulus s.s. Lacepède, 1803.
- Synonym : Hydrargira Lacepède, 1803
- Synonym : Borborys Goode & Bean, 1885

* Subgenus Fontinus Jordan & Evermann, 1896.
- Synonym : Galasaccus Fowler, 1916

* Subgenus Plancterus Garman, 1895.

* Subgenus Wileyichthys Ghedotti & Davis, 2013.

* Subgenus Xenisma Jordan in Jordan & Copeland, 1877.
- Synonym : Gambusinus Jordan & Evermann, 1896

* Subgenus Zygonectes Agassiz, 1854.
- Synonym : Adinia Girard, 1859
- Synonym : Micristius Gill, 1865

* Genus Leptolucania Myers, 1924.

* Genus Lucania Girard, 1859.
- Synonym : Chriopeops Fowler, 1916

 

Superfamily Goodeoidea Jordan & Gilbert, 1883
[Jordan, D.S. & C.H. Gilbert. 1883. A synopsis of the Fishes of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 16: 1-1018.]

 

Family Goodeidae Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. [viviparous, in part]

 

Subfamily Empetrichthyinae Jordan, Evermann, & Clark, 1930.
[Jordan, D.S., B.W. Evermann & H.W. Clark. 1930. Checklist of the Fishes and Fish-like Vertebrates of North and Middle America north of the Northern boundary of Venezuela and Colombia. U.S. Comm. of Fish. Rept. for 1928, Part 2, App. 10: 670pp.]

* Genus Empetrichthys Gilbert, 1893.

* Genus Crenichthys Hubbs, 1932.

 

Family Profundulidae Hoedeman & Bronner, 1951. (Footnote 10)
[Hoedeman, J.J. & F.J. Bronner. 1951. De orde van de Tandkarpertjes, Cyprinodontiformes Berg, 1940. Deel VI. Het Aquarium (The Netherlands) 22 (1): 6-10, figs.]

* Genus Profundulus Hubbs, 1924.

* Subgenus Profundulus s.s. Hubbs, 1924.

* Subgenus Tlaloc Alvarez & Carranza, 1951

 

Superfamily Valencioidea Parenti, 1981. (Footnote 4)
[Parenti, L.R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 168 (4): 335-557, 99 figs., 3 tabs, maps.]

 

Family Valenciidae Parenti, 1981.

* Genus Valencia Myers, 1928.

 

Superfamily Poecilioidea Bonaparte, 1831. (Footnote 11)
[Bonaparte, C.L. Princ. 1831. Animali vertebrati. Prospetto del Sistema Generale d'Ittiologia, Tavola Metodica. Roma. Presso Antonio Boulzaler, vol. 52, 89-123; 155-189.]

 

Family Poeciliidae Bonaparte, 1831. [viviparous, in part]

 

Subfamily Poeciliinae Bonaparte, 1831. [viviparous, in part]

 

Tribe Cnesterodontini Hubbs, 1924. [viviparous, in part]
[Hubbs, C.L. 1924. Studies of the Fishes of the Order Cyprinodontes. Misc. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 13: 31 pp., 4 pls., tabs.]

 

Subtribe Tomeurina Eigenmann, 1912. (Footnote 3)
[Eigenmann, C.H. 1912 The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the ecological grouping of species, and the relation of the fauna of the plateau to that of the lowlands. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 5 (1): i-xxii + 1-578p, pls. 1-103]

* Genus Tomeurus Eigenmann, 1909.

 

Subfamily Aplocheilichthyinae Myers, 1928.
[Myers, G.S. 1928. The systematic Position of the Phallosthetid Fishes, with Diagnosis of a new Genus, from Siam. American Museum Novitates, n°295: 1-12.]

Tribe Aplocheilichthyini Myers, 1928.

* Genus Aplocheilichthys Bleeker, 1862.
- Synonym : Haplochilichthys Garman, 1895 (emendation)

 

Tribe Procatopodini Fowler, 1916. (# Procatopini, erratum)
[Fowler, H.W. 1916. Notes on Fishes of the Orders Haplomi and Microcyprini. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 68: 415-439.]

 

Subtribe Procatopodina Fowler, 1916. (# Procatopina, erratum)
- Synonym : Lamprichthyina Fowler, 1916.
[Fowler, H.W. 1916. Notes on Fishes of the Orders Haplomi and Microcyprini. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 68: 415-439.]
- Synonym : Pantanodontina Myers, 1955.
[Myers, G.S. 1955. Notes on the Classification and Names of Cyprinodont Fishes. Tropical Fish Magazine, 4 (4): 7.]

* Genus Procatopus Boulenger, 1904.
- Synonym : Andreasenius Clausen, 1959

* Genus Aapticheilichthys Huber, 2011.

* Genus Hylopanchax Poll & Lambert, 1965.

* Genus Hypsopanchax Myers, 1924.

* Genus Lamprichthys Regan, 1911.
- Synonym : Mohanga Boulenger, 1911

* Genus Pantanodon Myers, 1955.

* Genus Plataplochilus Ahl, 1928.

* Genus Platypanchax Ahl, 1928.

* Genus Rhexipanchax Huber, 1999.

 

Subtribe Micropanchina Huber, 2000.
[Huber, J.H. 2000. Killi-Data 2000. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Cybium, Soc. fr. Ichtyologie, Ed., Paris.: 538 pp., figs.]

* Genus Micropanchax Myers, 1924.

* Genus Laciris Huber, 1981.

* Genus Lacustricola Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Lacustricola s.s. Myers, 1924.

* Subgenus Cynopanchax Ahl, 1928.

* Genus Poropanchax Clausen, 1967.

* Subgenus Poropanchax s.s. Clausen, 1967.

* Subgenus Congopanchax Poll, 1971.

 

Tribe Fluviphylacini Roberts, 1970.
[Roberts, T.R. 1970. Description, osteology and relationships of the Amazonian cyprinodont fish Fluviphylax pygmaeus (Myers and Carvalho). Breviora (347): 28 pp., 13 figs.]

* Genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965.
- Synonym : Potamophylax Myers & Carvalho in Myers, 1955 (preoccupied name)

 

Family Anablepsidae Bonaparte, 1831. (#Anablepidae #Anableptidae) [viviparous, in part] (Footnote 13)
[Bonaparte, C.L. Princ. 1831. Animali vertebrati. Prospetto del Sistema Generale d'Ittiologia, Tavola Metodica. Roma. Presso Antonio Boulzaler, vol. 52, 89-123; 155-189.]

 

Subfamily Anablepsinae Bonaparte, 1831. (#Anablepinae #Anableptinae) [viviparous] (Footnote 13)

 

Subfamily Oxyzygonectinae Parenti, 1981.
[Parenti, L.R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 168 (4): 335-557, 99 figs., 3 tabs, maps.]

* Genus Oxyzygonectes Fowler, 1916.

 

 

Footnote 1 : Laan (pers. comm. to Huber, November 7. 2005) has demonstrated Günther's priority over Jordan & Gilbert [Jordan, D.S. & C.H. Gilbert. 1883. A synopsis of the fishes of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 16: 1-1018]

Footnote 2 : nomen oblitum is according to new concept in ICZN code (1999), valid from January 1. 2000 (following Huber, 2005).

Footnote 3 : Lucinda & Reis (2005), using osteology and morphology, place the genus Tomeurus as the most primitive taxon among Poeciliinae and in a separate tribe, whereas Ghedotti (2000), using the same type of characters (osteology and morphology) placed it very derived and closest to the southern genus Cnesterodon, as a subtribe within Cnesterodontini. Tomas Hrbek, Jens Seckinger and Axel Meyer (2007) or B.J.A. Pollux, R.W. Meredith, M.S. Springer, T. Garland and D.N. Reznick (2014), using molecular techniques place Tomeurus, as the most primitive taxon of their matrix, but Xenodexia ctenolepis : since it is not the most primitive, the authors conclude, like Ghedotti, that the live-bearing capacities were lost in genus Tomeurus ; these conflicting results are impossible to translate into a stable consensus picture and conservatively the genus Tomeurus has been positioned in a separate subtribe (not a tribe), until better evidence.

Footnote 4 : according to preliminary recent fossil and molecular evidence, Valencia could be more related to Aphanius, whereas according to recent osteological evidence (cranial soft tissue characters), Valencia is more related to Fundulidae, hence in both cases the family status Valenciidae might be discontinued in the future ; until stabilization, Valenciidae are maintained here, and this may be strengthened by a recent study of fossil fishes by Costa (2012) in which 2 extinct genera, Prolebias (in a revised restricted sense) and Francolebias are directly related to Valenciidae.

Footnote 5 : validity based on unpublished molecular evidence and variation of teeth structure according to Ghedotti (2000).

Footnote 6 : controversial case, with Huber (2007) analysing Fenerbahce as an electronic unavailable name replacing Adamas by Adamans, and Özdikmen (2008), Sonnenberg & Zee (2008), analysing Fenerbahce as available. Dubois (2008) demonstrates as valid the replacement family-group name Adamansini, according to ICZN code (valid from year 2000).

Footnote 7 : Epiplateinae moved back to Epiplatinae, according to ICZN preoccupied name, by Huber (2012).

Footnote 8 : Costa had used all family-group names built from Lebias with the root lebiat- (e.g., Cynolebiatinae) until 2008 when he moved to the root with the full name as lebias- (e.g., Cynolebiasinae), disregarding Huber's previous revision (2005) ; Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014) have shown this was an unjustified correction.

Footnote 9: the name is spelt either Lacépède or, as herein, Lacepède, following a detailed study by the senior, now deceased, French ichthyologist, Jacques Daget, at Paris MNHN… but it seems that French scientists could not reach a common conclusion after his death and both spellings are found everywhere on the Internet… when the issue is definitely sorted out, the correct spelling will be herein adopted.

Footnote 10: recent evidence by Meyer & Lydeard (1993), Webb et al. (2004), using the molecular technique, show that Profundulus is not related to Fundulus et al., but to the viviparous Goodeinae (and this has been confirmed by Costa, 1998, on osteology) and to Crenichthys/Empetrichthys ; again, Ghedotti & Davis, 2013 tend to place Profundulidae closer to Goodeidae than to Fundulidae

Footnote 11: Laan (pers. comm. to Huber, March 4. 2013) reports that the family-group names derived from Anableps and from Poecilia have been described by Bonaparte on the same page (page 160, as Anableptini, Paecilini) making them equal by priority rank, but he considers that there is a first revisor, Gill (1893: 133) who gives precedence to Poeciliidae [Gill, T.N. 1893. Families and Subfamilies of Fishes. Memoirs of the National Academy of Science, Mem. VI: 127-138.]

Footnote 12 : Orestiad- as stem derived from feminine (not masculine) gender of genus Orestias root, as proposed in Huber (2005c), confirmed by Cruz-Jofré et al. (2013) [Cruz-Jofré, F., M.A. Valladares, I. Vila & M.A. Mendez. 2013. The genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): nomenclatural Errors in the Assignation of species Names. Zootaxa , 3746 (4): 597–599]; note : in a hitherto overlooked publication [Gill, T. 1896. Note on the Nomenclature of the Poecilioid Fishes. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 18 (1060): 221-224.], Orestiadinae is already proposed, based on its Greek root.

Footnote 13 : Anablepsidae and Anablepsinae are the correct names following ICZN requirements derived from genus Anableps root, as proposed in Huber (2005c) [or equally if another ICZN rule is followed using the entire genus name as a prefix], however this group of fish is mainly viviparous, i.e. outside the scope of killifishes, oviparous… researchers are different, presently they are still keeping the old incorrect names Anablepidae and Anablepinae, but may have not been informed of these changes ; Anablepidae and Anablepinae are maintained by Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014), based on subjective prevailing recent practice.

Footnote 14 : Yssolebias has been moved by Costa (2015) to Cyprinodontoids, closer to Cubanichthys, based on the availability of a new, much clearer, radiograph of the single known specimen (holotype of Cyprinodon martae) ; the move has been confirmed by Huber (2015) and the genus has been placed in a new family-group name among cyprinodontids as a tribe of Cubanichthyinae to conform with Costa, but with reservations pending further studies.

Footnote 15 : Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014) have shown that family-group name Rivulidae Myers (1925) based on the genus name Rivulus is preoccupied by Rivulini Grote (1895) that is based on Rivula Guenée in Duponchel (1845), a tribe in Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), and have then proposed the case be referred to the ICZN Commission for a ruling to remove homonymy, following article 55.3.1. (however, in May 2016 such a request of ruling to ICZN has still not be published).

Footnote 16 : Costa (2014c) has proposed that genus Aphyolebias be synonymized into senior genus Moema ; pending further evidence in a more comprehensive group of taxa that move has not been followed herein, however if such a move would be accepted in the future then family-group name, at subtribe level, Aphyolebiatina, would be synonymized into Moemina.

Footnote 17 : Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014) have shown that family-group names should not be corrected based on a more accurate stem after 1999, following article 29.4 and 29.5 : for example correction based on accurate roots of genus name Aphyosemion as Aphyosemiina instead of Aphyosemina is not accepted by them (and provisionally followed herein) ; however corrections based on accurate roots of genus name ending by Lebias, as -lebii (instead of -lebiat) are left open by them and herein the conservative option is followed with -lebiat, like in Cynolebiatinae, (however that option is not favored and -lebii is prefered, like in Cynolebiinae, by the present author and by Laan, one of the above co-authors, has e-published his full list of valid fish family-group names in «Freshwater Fish List 18th Edition May 2016» using Cynolebiinae ; debates on the interpretation of those rules are still active today and the herein selected option is still temporary and may be reversed in the future).

Footnote 18 : Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014) have used Rachoviina instead of Rachovina, however Costa started first with Rachovina, then changed it for Rachoviina, then moved back to Rachovina and kept his correction as Rachovini in 2014 [Costa, W.J.E.M. 2014c. Phylogeny and evolutionary Radiation in seasonal rachovine killifishes: biogeographical and taxonomical Implications. Vertebrate Zoology, 64 (2) : 177-192, 1 fig.] ; besides, should Neofundulini and Rachoviini be merged (with a number of valid subtribes, yet undetermined), as mentioned by Laan, Eschmeyer & Fricke (2014), then Neofundulini would have priority over Rachoviini because Costa (1998) have used Neofundulida at a higher rank (infrafamily) over Rachoviidi (supertribe), even if those family-group names (infrafamily, supertribe) are not recognised by ICZN and even if Costa (2014) reverses the situation without argumentation.

 

Important notes : recent major molecular studies on probable ages and inter-relationships of higher groups of fish suggest that increased gene sampling, in general, might have a greater beneficial effect on the rigor of the estimation of phylogenetic topologies than more extensive taxon sampling (in short, large DNA fragments give better results, hence the few used taxa, i.e. those fish used as general fish models like Salmon, Carp, and Danio rerio, Fundulus heteroclitus, Oryzias latipes, Tetraodon sp. with Homo sapiens as the outgroup) ; in the resulting tree, Killifish have separated from pufferfish about 190 Million years ago (at about the time when Pangaea split), and are related to Beloniformes (themselves separated a "little" later), and to Perciformes (Cichlids, the "younger" group, separated about 113 million years ago, therefore after the split of Gondwana and the drift of present Africa and South America)… but are not related to Cyprinids (Barbs), to Siluriformes or to Salmon (anecdotally Cypriniformes, i.e. Barbs, and Cyprinodontiformes, i.e. Killifishes, were thought closely related by early zoologists about 150 years ago, only separated by the presence of teeth in the latter !) ; further, the monophyly (with a single ancestor) of Atherinomorpha (Atheriniformes, Beloniformes, and Cyprinodontiformes, i.e. medakas, ricefishes, flyingfishes, silversides, killifishes) is confirmed on whole mitogenome sequences with their relationship to Percomorpha (demonstration of their phylogenetic affinity to the percomorph fishes i.e. including cichlids that are spawning demersal eggs with filaments), in agreement with the widely accepted morpho-osteological hypothesis that ricefishes (family Adrianichthyidae) are more closely related to Belonoids than to Cyprinodontiforms [sources : Steinke, Dirk ; Salzburger, Walter ; Meyer, Axel. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 2006 June; 62 (6): 772-784, 4 figs.|Setiamarga, Davin H.E., Miya Masaki, Yamanoue Yusuke, Mabuchi Kohji, Satoh Takashi P., Inoue Jun G., Nishida Mutsumi, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49 (2008) 598–605]

 

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